Retrograde Chapbooks

In Arnold Schoenberg’s 12-tone system, retrograde refers to the operation of time-reversing the tones in a musical series, while maintaining the original pitches and rhythms on the sequence. As a literary counterpart to Schoenberg’s retrogression technique, Retrograde Chapbooks presents existing texts from the history of modernism and the avant-garde, where all sentences have been re-arranged in the inverse order. The immediate meaning and readability of each sentence is maintained, but the overall sense is displaced within the text as a whole.

Retrograde Chapbooks aims to celebrate the original texts, while at the same time proposes an inquiry on the forward linearity of historical development in culture, by performing a literal “going back” movement to modernist paradigms.


  1. Futurist Manifesto - Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
  2. Dada Manifesto - Hugo Ball
  3. Dada Manifesto - Tristan Tzara
  4. De Stijl Manifesto - Theo van Doesburg

Published by the artist

Edition of 10


Freely availbale as e-book publications (PDF)

#1, #2, #3, #4